Regen Med Res
Volume 2, 2014
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||08 January 2014|
Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus activation contributes to neurohumoral excitation in rats with heart failure
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi’an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi’an 710061, China
2 Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
* Correspondence: email@example.com
Received: 14 August 2013
Accepted: 24 October 2013
Heart failure (HF) is a serious cardiovascular disease and is characterized by exaggerated sympathetic activity. In this paper, we review these limited studies, with particular emphasis on examining the role of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the neurohumoral excitation in HF. The PVN is an important neuroendocrine and preautonomic output nucleus, and is considered as the important central site for integration of sympathetic nerve activity. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that a number of neurohumoral processes are involved in the pathophysiology of HF, such as renin-angiotensin system (RAS), proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), neurotransmitters, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies about neurohumoral regulation indicate that angiotensin II type1 receptor (AT1-R) is the important product mediated by cytoplasmic nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) which is up-regulated along with elevated PICs and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the PVN of HF rats. These findings suggest that the NF-κB mediates the cross-talk between RAS and PICs in the PVN in HF. The further studies indicate that the interaction between AT1-R and NF-κB in the PVN contributes to oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation by modulating neurotransmitters in heart failure, and the superoxide activates NF-κB in the PVN and contributes to neurohumoral excitation. In conclusion, the neurohumoral excitation in HF is based on the interaction of RAS, PICs, ROS, NF-κB and neurotransmitters in the PVN; and the activated NF-κB in the PVN modulates the neurotransmitters and contributes to sympathoexcitation in rats with heart failure.
Key words: Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus / Neurohumoral excitation / Heart failure
© 2014 Kang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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