Regen Med Res
Volume 1, 2013
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||01 October 2013|
Chronic alcohol ingestion delays skeletal muscle regeneration following injury
Currently in Medical School at Georgia Medical College, Georgia, USA
2 Currently in Medical School at Mercer University, Mercer, USA
3 Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
* Correspondence: Jotis@gsu.edu
Received: 10 September 2012
Accepted: 21 December 2012
Background: Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-matched C57Bl/6 mice were provided normal drinking water or water that contained 20% alcohol (v/v) for 18–20 wk. Subgroups of mice were injected with a 1.2% barium chloride (BaCl2) solution into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle to initiate degeneration and regeneration processes. Body weights and voluntary wheel running distances were recorded during the course of recovery. Muscles were harvested at 2, 7 or 14 days post-injection and assessed for markers of inflammation and oxidant stress, fiber cross-sectional areas, levels of growth and fibrotic factors, and fibrosis.
Results: Body weights of injured, alcohol-fed mice were reduced during the first week of recovery. These mice also ran significantly shorter distances over the two weeks following injury compared to uninjured, alcoholics. Injured TA muscles from alcohol-fed mice had increased TNFα and IL6 gene levels compared to controls 2 days after injury. Total protein oxidant stress and alterations to glutathione homeostasis were also evident at 7 and 14 days after injury. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induction was delayed in injured muscles from alcohol-fed mice which may explain, in part, why fiber cross-sectional area failed to normalize 14 days following injury. Gene levels of TGFβ1 were induced early following injury before normalizing in muscle from alcohol-fed mice compared to controls. However, TGFβ1 protein content was consistently elevated in injured muscle regardless of diet. Fibrosis was increased in injured, muscle from alcohol-fed mice at 7 and 14 days of recovery compared to injured controls.
Conclusions: Chronic alcohol ingestion appears to delay the normal regenerative response following significant skeletal muscle injury. This is evidenced by reduced cross-sectional areas of regenerated fibers, increased fibrosis, and altered temporal expression of well-described growth and fibrotic factors.
Key words: Alcoholic myopathy / Skeletal muscle regeneration / Oxidant stress / Glutathione / Fibrosis
© 2013 Dekeyser et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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